Do you wish to add Russian to your language arsenal? If yes, welcome on board!

Russian is one of the four surviving languages of East Slavia and has approximately 258 million speakers globally. Belonging to the Indo-European language family, it shares a high level of mutual intelligibility with Ukrainian and Belarusian. The East Slavic language remains the eighth most spoken language in the world and one of the United Nations’ six official languages; these should strengthen your resolve to learn the language.

Away from its history, let’s discuss the grammatical aspects of the major grammatical aspects every beginner should know. Beginners often face the challenge of choosing what grammatical areas to begin with. Not to worry, we’ve got you covered. It’s advisable to begin with the simple grammatical aspects like morphology, nominal, verbs, and moods before proceeding to complex aspects like syntax, stylistics, and pragmatics. This article is a simple, but detailed guide on Russian tenses and verbs. You can also check out the following Russian topics:

Verbs

Games

Conjugation

Sentences

 

Past tense in Russian
Russian tenses are easy to learn. Photo Credit: Unsplash.

The Cyrillic Alphabet

Every beginner is advised to begin with the alphabet, as its mastery would simplify complex areas like tenses, sentence structures, and word formation. Like any other standardized language, Russian has its own alphabet called the Cyrillic script. The script shows the distinction between soft and hard consonant sounds. Like the English language, stress is unpredictable in Russian. Thus, the script is effective in assigning stress markers to words and reducing unstressed vowels (schwa). Stress, in Russian, performs two major functions; to indicate how uncommon words are pronounced and distinguish between words that are homographic. Here’s an example of two homographic words:

зamόk – zamόk (lock)

зámok – zámok (castle)

The first example has the stress marker assigned to the phoneme “ό” while “á” is stressed in the second. Due to the change in stress, each word has its unique meaning, suggesting that stress marker placement determines the meaning of a word irrespective of its orthography. Below is the Russian alphabet:

RetailerBrandLevel of CraftmanshipType of BoxingPrice in Pounds
DecathlonOutshock, AdidasBasic (training)kick boxing, Western boxing, Thai boxing14 to 30
FuryfightBuddha, FightwearAverage (competition)Muay Thai, MMA27 to 34
Dragon BleuAdidas, Dragon Bleu, Venum, Metal BoxeAverage to High (competition)All boxing styles20 to 69
TitleAdidas, Metal Boxe, Fuji Mae, EverlastAverage to High (competition)Western boxing, Thai boxing12 to 50
Boxing ShopVenum Everlast, NikeBasic to Average (training)All boxing styles30 to 50

Before discussing the Russian grammar tenses, let’s shed some light on the syntactic structure of the language.

Grammatical Structure:

The language follows the SVO sentence structure and assigns only the nominative case to the subject position. For the object position, other cases can be assigned to it.

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Personal Pronouns

Weight of BoxerBoxing CategorySize of Gloves
51 to 54 kgRooster08 Oz
54 to 57 kgFeather08 Oz
57 to 60 kgSuper-Feather08 Oz
60 to 63 kgLightweight08 Oz
63 to 66 kgSuper-Light10 Oz
66 to 70 kgMedium10 Oz
70 to 74 kgSuper-Medium10 Oz
74 to 79 kgMedium12 Oz
79 to 85 kgMedium-Heavy12 Oz
85 to 100 kgHeavy12 Oz

The table above indicates that there are six cases in the language and they each function differently.

Genitive case – indicates possession.

Nominative case – serves as the subject of the sentence.

Instrumental case – indicates “by means of” or “with”.

Dative case – takes the indirect object position.

Prepositional case – placed after a preposition.

Accusative case – takes the direct object position.

Verbs in Russian with Tenses

Russian has three tenses and they include the following:

  • Present tense
  • Past tense
  • Future tense

In addition to the three tenses, there are two verbal aspects and they are:

  • Perfective aspect
  • Imperfective aspect

Russian Infinitive

The language has an initial or base form of words. An infinitive verb is the initial form of a verb which can be seen in a dictionary. Such verbs indicate a state of being or show action but don’t indicate the gender, number, or tense in which they’re used.

Initial Nouns

NameBornDied
Antonio Vivaldi16781741
Johann Sebastian Bach16851750
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart17561791
Niccolò Paganini17821840
Pablo de Sarasate18441908
Jascha Heifetz19011987
David Oïstrakh19081974
Yehudi Menuhin19161999
Isaac Stern19202001

Infinitive Verbs

 simple presentimperfectsimple pastsimple futurepast participle
J'aiavaiseusauraieu (m.),eue (f.)
Tuasavaiseusauras
Il/elle/onaavaiseutaura
Nousavonsavionseûmesaurons
Vousavezaviezeûtesaurez
Ils/ellesontavaienteurentauront

While the infinitive represents the base form of verbs, nouns have the nominative singular form as their base. The infinitive seeks to answer questions like "что сде́лать?", as well as, "что де́лать?". Infinitives are verb forms that cannot be changed and most Russian verbs have the suffixes "-ти" or "-ть".

Russian infinitives are used for the following:

An infinitive is combined with present tense verbs to indicate if an action just started, is ongoing, or has ended. For example:

  • They have started working - они начали работать.

He finished reading - он ко́нчила чита́ть.

  • Infinitives are used in constructing expressions with compound future tenses. For example:

They shall work. - Oни бу́дем рабо́тать.

  • They are combined with adjectives and adverbs. For example:

They need to go - Oни ну́жно идти.

  • Infinitives are combined with motion verbs. For example:

To walk - ходи́ть

To fly - лете́ть

Despite the numerous word class combinations you can have with infinitives, infinitives shouldn't be used with the verb "to know - зна́ть"

Tense (Past) + Aspect (Imperfective)

  • It’s used for actions which started and ended at a specific period in the past. The speaker is uninterested in the result.
  • Used for recurrent activities which occurred in the past.
  • Used during the nullification of an action’s result.
  • Used for past actions which occurred simultaneously.

Tense (Past) + Aspect (Perfective)

  • It’s used for actions which started and ended at a specific period in the past, with emphasis on the result.
  • Used when the results of actions remain.
  • Used for two past actions which followed consecutively with their results achieved.

Tense (Present) + Aspect (Imperfective)

  • Indicates the current state.
  • Used for factual statements.
  • Indicates a habitual action.
  • Used for an action that’s currently occurring.

Tense (Future) + Aspect (Imperfective)

  • Used for actions that would be ongoing or repeated in the future, but unknown whether they would be completed or not.

Tense (Future) + Aspect (Perfective)

  • Used for actions that would be completed at some point in the future.
Present tense in Russian
Russian has over 250 million speakers globally. Photo Credit: Unsplash.
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The Present Tense in Russian

Being an L2 English speaker, it's comforting to know that Russian tenses are simpler and straight forward when compared to English tenses. In the English language, you must undergo the hassle of memorising numerous tense forms like the present continuous tense, present perfect continuous tense, and present tense. Russian, however, streamlines all these variations into the simple present tense form which comprises the "subject + verb" combination. For example:

I work - simple present tense

I'm working -present continuous tense

I've been working -present perfect continuous tense

The aforementioned tense variants are all translated into "Я работаю" in Russian. Likewise:

I read - simple present tense

I'm reading -present continuous tense

I've been reading - present perfect continuous tense

The aforementioned variants are translated into "я читаю" in Russian.

Like the English language whose verb is determined by the subject, Russian follows the "subject-verb agreement" rule. Russian, however, changes its verb endings according to two patterns known as:

  • The first conjugation
  • The second conjugation

First Conjugation

To achieve subject-verb agreement in the present tense form, delete the last two infinitive phonemes “ть” and replace them with the correct ending. The endings include the following:

  • ют
  • ет
  • ете
  • ешь
  • ем
  • ю

Second Conjugation

Verbs ending with “-ить” infinitive utilize the second conjugation. The following endings/suffixes are used for the second conjugation.

  • им
  • ит
  • ят
  • ишь
  • ю or y
  • ят

When spelling Russian words, don’t write Я, Ы, or Ю after either of the following letters “Щ, Ч, Ш, Х, Ж, К, Г”. Use the following instead “А, У, И”.

Russian grammar tenses
There's no better time to learn the language than now. Photo Credit: Unsplash.

The Past Tense in Russian

Like the present tense, the Russian past tense uses only the past tense to represent the English past tense, past perfect, and past perfect progressive. In contrast to the present tense which focuses on the speaker, the past tense focuses on the subject’s gender. Thus, the subject’s grammatical gender is often a pronoun when referring to yourself. But for human subjects, you’ll have to select either the feminine or masculine gender. For plural subjects, choose the plural form. Below are the verb endings:

-л is used for the male gender.

-ла is used for the female gender.

-ло is used for the neuter gender.

-ли is the plural form.

The Future Tense in Russian

As the name implies, it’s an action that hasn’t happened; thus, it’s futuristic. It has the future simple tense and the future compound tense.

The Simple & Compound Future Tenses

The future simple forms are created using perfective verbs through the aid of personal endings. Perfective verbs perform single actions that are complete. The future compound forms, however, are constructed using imperfective verbs and they include:

The imperfective verb’s infinitive and the future simple form of “to be - быть”. Below are the future perfect conjugations:

 simple presentimperfectsimple pastsimple futurepast participle
J'aiavaiseusauraieu (m.),eue (f.)
Tuasavaiseusauras
Il/elle/onaavaiseutaura
Nousavonsavionseûmesaurons
Vousavezaviezeûtesaurez
Ils/ellesontavaienteurentauront
 simple present imperfectsimple pastsimple futurepast participle
Jesuisétaisfusseraiété (m), étée (f.)
Tuesétaisfusseras
Il/elle/onestétaitfutsera
Noussommesétionsfûmesserons
Vousêtesétiezfûtesserez
Ils/ellessontétaientfurentseront
 simple presentimperfectsimple pastsimple futurepast participle
J'aimeaimaisaimaiaimeraisaimé (m.), aimée (f.)
Tuaimesaimaisaimasaimeras
Il/elle/ontaimeaimaitaimaaimera
Nousaimonsaimionsaimâmesaimerons
Vousaimezaimiezaimâtesaimerez
Ils/ellesaimentaimaientaimèrentaimeront
 subjunctive present subjunctive imperfect conditional presentimperative present participle
Je/J'que j'aimeque j'aimasseaimeraisaimant
Tuque tu aimesque tu aimassesaimeraisaime
Il/elle/onqu'il aimequ'il aimâtaimerait
Nousque nous aimionsque nous aimassonsaimerionsaimons
Vousque vous aimiezque vous aimassezaimeriezaimez
Ils/ellesqu'ils aimentqu'ils aimassentaimeraient

We’ve only covered the basic Russian verb forms. We’re yet to discuss the complex aspects such as the moods, directionality, unprefix, unidirectional perfectives, and the participles. Employing the services of a native Russian tutor is recommended for these aspects. Superprof is a reputable tutoring platform to consider.

 

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